It is very interesting to read an article (in the American magazine Military History) about Colonel Frederick Funston and how, on 26 April 1899, he led the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry Regiment across the Rio Grande in Pampanga to take the town of Calumpit.
On 10 January 1899, Spain ceded the Philippines to America in a dastardly move, and the Filipinos wouldn’t have it, so America was forced to send 21,000 troops to the Philippines to quell the Filipino “uprising.”
The magazine refers to the Filipinos as insurrectionists but Filipinos referred to themselves as revolutionaries. (It must be noted that the Americans possessed far superior firepower to the Filipinos. Among the weapons in the American arsenal: the first magazine-loading rifle, the Krag-Jorgensen)
Anyhoo, the magazine is full of interesting information about the Kansas Volunteers, which is a little disorienting because self’s sole reason for reading the article is to glean information about the Filipino side (who were defeated by, among other things, that high-tech Krag-Jorgensen rifle! As well as by the Americans’ expert use of “the artillery barrage.” And by the Filipinos’ relative inexperience — most were used to fighting as guerrillas, not as part of a massed assault. The writer of the article maintains that “a third” of the Filipino fighters were without guns or rifles of any kind. They faced the Americans with bolos and wooden spears).
The article is accompanied by many, many detailed illustrations, including this colorized photograph (No photographer cited) of the 20th Kansas lined up on a bank of the Rio Grande:
Stay tuned, dear blog readers. Stay tuned.